It’s always fascinating to learn what top-level athletes eat. Kyra Condie, Olympian and elite climber, was kind enough to speak with me over the phone so I could pick her brain about her experience with fueling in Tokyo.
I first asked how she prepped before arriving in Tokyo. She said she had met with a dietitian from the USOPC who helped her figure out some fueling needs. Since she’s vegetarian, Condie has additional challenges to fueling herself well. (See our post on vegan diets for climbers if you want some tips!)
Condie packed tons of snacks to have on hand, “I figured it was better to have too much than to run out!” She brought along things like:
Chia squeeze pudding
She also brought her own coffee pot to boil water and prepare simple foods like oatmeal in her room. She packed a lunch box full of trail mix and other snacks to the comps.
As far as meals, “The dining hall was pretty accommodating,” says Condie. It was open 24/7 which was nice to have access to food whenever she needed it, especially for athletes arriving from a different time zone where your eating schedule doesn’t match Tokyo’s. She said the timing of eating was different, and she had to adapt to the new time zone and the comp schedules.
There was a fridge available to the athletes, so she could send someone out to get groceries for her. Due to covid restrictions, the athletes were not allowed to go out themselves. This was a bit of a challenge trying to describe exactly what to buy, especially in a foreign country. Condie says she at a lot of silken tofu cups, which was a great addition to her diet.
She also says, “I drank for Propel than I ever have in my life!” Because that is what was easily available to the athletes.
A final tip from Condie that will work well for any traveling athlete: “Try to find a food specific to the country that you’re traveling in that you like and works well for you.” For Tokyo, this meant soba noodles. If she wasn’t sure what would be available, she knew soba noodles would work well. She says she does this for World Cups as well and it’s a great trick to staying fueled.
A huge thank you to Kyra Condie for sharing your experience!
Welcome to the basics! As a climber, you need a balance of fats, carbohydrates, and protein to help your body function at its best, prevent injury, and optimize recovery. While this post may seem basic to some, it’s the foundation of many body processes and is useful to understand!
There are a lot of nutrition myths and misinformation out there. Understanding what is true about how your body uses different nutrients can help set you up for success.
Food provides energy for your body. Adequate energy is essential for your body to have the resources it needs to function. Your body uses this energy to maintain normal body processes, such as heart rate, breathing, producing new cells to maintain tissues, digestion, and more.
Energy in food is measured in calories or kilojoules. Your body needs a certain amount of baseline calories to exist, and then you need additional calories to do whatever else you want your body to do. Working, daily household tasks, exercising, and even thinking require extra calories. Getting the right amount to support your body will help you be healthy.
Energy needs vary from person to person based on their gender, age, body composition, and activity level. They also vary if you are stressed, injured, or sick. Energy needs also fluctuate from day to day or week to week—they aren’t always exact or static.
Macronutrients are nutrients that provide energy. These are carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol. Let’s take a look at each one.
Role in the body: Many popular diets eliminate or limit carbohydrates (or carbs), but carbohydrates an important macronutrient for sports performance. Whether you are climbing, skiing, hiking, lifting weights, or anything else, your body needs carbohydrates to fuel those movements.
Carbohydrate is the fuel in the anaerobic energy system and the aerobic energy systems. If you are doing a moderate-paced endurance exercise, your body is using a mix of both carbohydrates and fat to fuel that workout. If you are doing an intense move, such as a sprint or power lift, your body uses carbohydrate to fuel that movement. Carbohydrate provides four calories per gram.
The food you eat, including carbohydrates, also keep your blood sugar regulated and provide fuel for your brain. Glucose is a form of simple sugar (carbohydrate) in your blood. It serves as fuel for your cells and brain. Your body likes to keep blood sugar levels regular so you can feel optimal and perform your best.
Glycogen in a storage form of glucose. It is stored in your body in your liver and skeletal muscles. Glycogen helps keep your blood sugar stable by breaking down into glucose when you are sleeping or fasting. It also is on-board fuel in your muscles to power any muscle contractions.
Most people have around 1200-1400 calories of glycogen in their muscles and liver. If you exercise for about two to three hours without eating any food or drinking any fluids that provide calories and carbohydrates, you can run out of fuel and “bonk.” This is common in endurance evens such as marathons and triathlon, as well as cross country skiing or all-day adventures.
Bonking simply means your body runs out of fuel to power your exercise. Symptoms include feeling weak, shaky, and lethargic, with heavy legs and fatigue. You can prevent bonking by eating regularly, about 30-60 grams of quickly-digestible carbohydrate per hour (such as a white bagel, gummies/chews, juice, honey, or sports drink, or even up to 90 grams per hour for long endurance events. You can recover from bonking by stopping your exercise, eating quickly-digestible carbohydrate, and waiting about 20-30 minutes for your blood sugar to come back to normal.
There are no “good” or “bad” carbs. They are simply fuel for your body. Some carbohydrates, such as fruits and whole grains, contain vitamins, minerals, and fiber, which makes them a good choice for overall health. Others, such as fruit juice and gummy candy, do not have useful nutrients other than the carbohydrate itself—but they are very useful in certain situations.
Eating regular meals help regulate blood sugar. Eating before exercise if it’s been more than two to four hours since your last meal can help you feel fueled and energized for the workout.
Food sources: Main food sources of carbohydrate include:
Grains: rice, bread, pasta, oats, barley, cereal, etc.
Legumes and lentils: kidney beans, garbanzo beans, lima beans, etc.
Sweets and desserts: candies, cookies, cake, soda (not diet)
Milk and yogurt
Your carbohydrate needs may vary depending on your activity level. The baseline carbohydrate needs for normal healthy adults is around three to five grams per kilogram per day. If you are doing heavy training or have a long day of hiking, skiing, or climbing, you will need more carbohydrate, up to 7-12 grams per kilogram per day.
Role in the body: Protein plays a number of different roles in the body. It’s an incredibly important nutrient for overall health and also sports performance. It’s involved with muscle growth and repair, bone health, immune function, tendon and ligament health, skin, and all organs.
Protein is made up of amino acids, which are like building blocks for protein. Some amino acids are not essential, meaning your body can manufacture them on its own. Some are essential, which means you need to get them in your diet in order for your body to operate at optimal health. Protein provides four calories per gram.
Eating a wide variety of foods usually supplies enough overall protein and amino acids to be healthy. Those at risk for not getting enough protein are vegans, vegetarians, and people that are dieting or restricting their food intake.
Protein also helps people feel full and satisfied after a meal. Adequate protein is needed to help preserve lean muscle mass when trying to lose weight.
It is a crucial nutrient for athletes. Whether you are a climber, skier, hiker, alpinist, runner or anything else, your body needs enough protein to perform optimally.
Meat, fish, poultry
Dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese)
Legumes (beans and lentils)
Nuts and seeds
Soy products (tofu, tempeh, edamame)
In general, proteins from animal sources, such as eggs, meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products are better absorbed and used in your body than protein from plant sources (like tofu, beans, lentils, and nuts).
Protein from whole food sources offer a variety of nutrients, as well as fiber if it is from a plant source. This is usually better than using a supplement such as a protein powder, although in some cases protein powders can be useful.
The recommended amount of protein you may need varies widely based on your individual health history and your current exercise program. The minimum requirement in most countries is around 0.8 grams per kilogram per day.
Athletes will need much more to function optimally. A strength athlete, or an athlete undergoing a very intense training program may need up to 2.2 grams per kilogram per day, while an endurance athlete with a moderate training program may need around 1.2-1.6 grams per kilogram per day. If you are recovering from a surgery or injury, you may also have increased protein needs, from about 1.3-2.0 grams per kilogram per day.
Find a qualified dietitian to help you determine your own calorie, protein, and carbohydrate needs for your particular situation.
Fat sometimes has a bad reputation, but fat is essential for life. Your body needs fat for absorbing fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K). Fat makes up almost all cell membranes in the body. It also provides energy and essential fatty acids your body cannot do without. Fat provides nine calories per gram.
Two main types of fats are saturated and unsaturated. In general, it’s best to get most of your fat as unsaturated, as this is better for overall health and risk for heart disease. Foods like olive oil, fish, nuts, seeds, and avocado provide healthful fats that are beneficial for your body.
Fat also plays a role in energy metabolism. This means that fat can be a fuel source for your exercise and training. Fat is used as a fuel source, along with some carbohydrate, when the body is exercising at a moderate intensity, such as jogging, walking, hiking, or skiing—anything you can do for several minutes to hours.
Nuts and seeds
Fish, meat, and poultry
Full-fat dairy products, such as butter, yogurt, milk, cheese, and ice cream
Fried foods, such as French fries, donuts, or breaded fried meat and fish
Baked goods made with fat, such as biscuits, cake, and cookies
Most countries recommend limiting your intake to about 60-70 grams of fat per day, with 10% or less of total energy intake as saturated fat, and little to no trans fats.
Alcohol is technically a nutrient, as it provides energy at seven calories per gram. However, it is not recommended to be a large part of your diet, as it is a toxin and also can be very harmful to health, as well as addicting.
Alcohol should be used only in moderation or not at all. Consult with your healthcare professional before using alcohol to ensure it will not interact with any medications or cause harm to your body.
While alcohol is not recommended, it is included here because many people drink it on a regular basis. It’s important to be aware of how it can affect your training. Alcohol can interfere with muscle rebuilding and repair after a training session, decrease concentration, interfere with quality sleep, dehydrate you, and decrease coordination. It can also add additional unwanted calories that your body may not need, and thwart your ability to eat a good meal if you are drinking instead of eating.
With the right balance of macronutrients, and variety of food in your diet, you can feel better and climb harder.
~This is general nutrition information and not medical or nutrition advice. Always consult with a healthcare professional before undergoing any diet or lifestyle change.
I often get the question, “Should I take a multivitamin?” The answer is, it depends! It’s best to only take a vitamin or mineral supplement if you have a known deficiency. You can get tested at your doctor to see if you are deficient, and get recommendations on if you need to take anything, what to take, what form to take it in, and how much to take. Taking a vitamin or mineral supplement as “insurance” or “just in case” is not recommended. At best, it can result in wasted money and really “expensive pee,” because your body will just excrete out water-soluble vitamins it doesn’t need. At worst, you could end up with a toxicity or negative health outcomes.
Also consider if someone is recommending that you take a supplement, vitamin, or mineral—do they have an incentive for you to take it? Are they selling it? Or do they get a percentage of the sale? If so, don’t do it. If you truly need a supplement, you can get it from neutral third-parties. Multi-level marketing often sells questionable products and there is nothing you can only get from MLM that you couldn’t get at a normal store that you would actually NEED.
Also be sure your supplement is clean from contaminants by looking for the NSF Certified for Sport, Informed Choice, or USP labels.
Micronutrients do not provide energy but play an important role in health and the way your body functions. There are many micronutrients, but we picked out the most common ones and made this reference chart for you. Keep in mind, it doesn’t list every single function, nor every single food source (that would be impossible!).
Recommended intake is set for most adults age 18 and up based on guidelines from the United States. You may need a different amount based on your health history. Always check with your doctor before taking any vitamin, mineral, or supplement.
What it does
Recommended intake per day
Implications for sports performance
Carries oxygen to tissues, helps with metabolism and cell function
Meat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark leafy vegetables, fortified cereals and breads
Males 8 mg, Females 18 mg
If deficient, may feel weak, fatigued
Bone health and strength, nerve conduction, enzyme and hormone function, muscle contraction
Dairy products, fish with edible bones (sardines), kale, broccoli, fortified soy and cereal products
Supports bone health and may help prevent injury
Helps with numerous cell functions, immunity, growth in children
Nutrition tips for competition and recovery: Adapt your nutrition strategy to match your climbing style. For example, if you spend more time in static holds, more sustained movement (rather than dynos and quick, intense movements), or more endurance-style climbing, fuel your body to match those needs.
A short climbing session may need just 30-60 grams of carbohydrate before the session. A longer session with more endurance climbing would benefit from eating protein along with the carbohydrates, as this is more slowly digested, giving you longer-lasting energy.
Those with spinal cord dysfunction may experience decreased muscle mass below the level of the lesion, and a reduced resting energy expenditure. This simply means you may need less calories overall on rest days.
Some athletes with spasticity or other movement disorders can actually have increased energy needs since the muscles are firing much more often. It’s often difficult to estimate energy needs and expenditure for para-athletes. If you need specialized help with fueling your climbing, seek out professional help from your doctor and dietitian.
Temperature Regulation: Difficulty regulating body temperature is common with neurologic impairment. The impairment can affect the ability to shiver or sweat in the affected body regions. In addition, certain medications used for some movement disorders can cause you to be more susceptible to overheating. Please ask your doctor about any side effects in temperature regulation.
In warm temperatures you need to ensure you are hydrating adequately. In general, about eight ounces of fluid per hour in normal climbing conditions is enough. You may need more if you are climbing in more extreme conditions, such as high altitude, heat, humidity, or extreme cold. Using cold, icy beverages in the heat can help lower your body temperature. Knowing your own personal sweat rate and bowel schedule can help you plan for a successful climbing session. When environmental temperatures are cool, try dressing in layers or using hot beverages to stay warm.
Skin: Climbers with adaptive equipment, such as a wheelchair or prosthesis, need to pay special attention to their skin health. Areas of skin that don’t have normal feeling are at increased risk of pressure and rubbing injuries. If repeated skin breakdown is an issue, work with your doctor, equipment provider, or a professional prosthesis/orthotist to ensure you get the right equipment and the right fit for your body.
Athletes need to eat and hydrate adequately to support skin health. If your skin is prone to breakdown and pressure sores, ask your doctor or dietitian about nutrition for skin healing and preventing skin breakdown. Some supplements, such as vitamin C and zinc, may be appropriate on a short-term basis.
Bone Health: Para climbers may be at risk for decreased bone density due to decreased ability to perform weigh-bearing exercises in some athletes. Adequate overall calories and protein are important, as well as calcium and vitamin D. Ask your doctor before taking any supplements.
Collagen seems to be a really popular topic right now. I keep seeing climbers post on social media questions like,” Do I need collagen? It seems useful. Will it really help?”
What are the claims around collagen supplementation?
There are a lot of claims around collagen, ranging from improving skin, hair, and nail health, to helping prevent tendon injury, to improving bone density and joint pain. For the purpose of this blog post, we’ll focus on what collagen may be able to do for climbers. Sure, you may want luxurious hair, but what about skin healing and tendon/ligament health? That’s probably more important to you as a climber.
What is collagen?
Collagen is an abundant protein in your body. It is part of the structure of bones, muscles, skins, tendons, and ligaments. In theory, if you supplement with collagen, it may help with tendon and ligament health. Here’s a nice quick read on collagen supplement basics. And here’s a really beautiful and comprehensive read on collagen for injury prevention.
Collagen (a common brand is Vital Proteins ) is made up of bovine (cow) hide (they also have a marine version). Some is made of skin, bones, and fish scales. Clearly, this is not a vegan or vegetarian product!
The structure of a tendon is made up of a triple helix composed three amino acids: hydroxyproline, proline, and glycine. The uniqueness of collagen supplement seems to be that these three amino acids in high amounts are possibly useful for soft tissue health when you orally supplement.
It could be potentially be tough to get these amino acids in the right amounts just through diet, especially if your tendons are injured and may have increased need. Dietary sources of glycine include meat, fish, dairy products, egg whites, bone broth, and chicken and pork skin. Your body also makes its own glycine.
Is all the collagen hype backed by research? Read on, my friends.
What is the current research around collagen for athletes?
We’ve got a little bit! It seems that the hype, marketing, and products are way beyond the actual research. What we do have is promising, but much more is needed.
What other nutrients are important for tendon health?
Vitamin C is important. It aids in collagen synthesis. Meaning, if your body is trying to build up collagen in your soft tissue, it needs vitamin C to do it. Current research suggests taking vitamin C with collagen (recommendations range from about 15-500 g). Food sources of vitamin C include oranges, strawberries, peppers, broccoli, potatoes, and more.
Copper is also an important nutrient for collagen synthesis. It helps build the collagen structure in your body. If you are not deficient, there is no additional advantage to adding more copper. It’s only useful if you were already deficient and then corrected that deficiency. Food sources of copper include shellfish, seeds, nuts, wheat bran, and chocolate (Heck yeah!).
Overall adequate calorie intake is also really important. If you are dieting, going through an eating disorder, or even inadvertently not eating enough, your tissue health can be compromised. Your body needs enough energy in the form of food/calories in order to fuel your workouts and recover, rebuild, and repair after the workout. Collagen supplements may not do much if your body is struggling to get enough overall calories.
Other nutrients important for general injury treatment and prevention:
So you can see that narrowly focusing on just collagen may not be the best thing for your overall tendon health. A food-first philosophy will help you get a wide range of nutrients to keep your body healthy. In general, eating high-quality protein (lean meat, chicken, fish, eggs, dairy), whole grains, nuts & seeds, fruits & vegetables, and legumes is a great way to get the nutrients your body needs.
How much collagen do you need to take to see results?
Most research shows you need to take around 10-20 g per day, along with the vitamin C (doses in the research vary–probably around 50g is adequate). This may need to be done for at least 12 weeks consistently to see any results. Take it 30-60 minutes before your training or physical therapy session. The loading stimulus of the workout helps strengthen tendons.
I’ve seen some food products where they add collagen (marketing hype much?) and it’s not even a therapeutic dose. Like this Skinny Pop popcorn (face palm). Similarly, I’ve seen a lot of influencers and well-meaning nutritionists create recipes using collagen powder, like collagen energy bites, cookies, muffins, and pancakes. But if you only use one scoop of collagen (10 g) for the whole recipe, you’re not getting the adequate dose of collagen to do anything meaningful for your tendons.
And no, do not mix your pricey PhysiVantage collagen supplement (which includes vitamin C) with hot coffee as they suggest. Heat destroys vitamin C. So you paid a premium for vitamin C to be added to your collagen, and then you just obliterated it.
What collagen product should I use?
There are a few of them out there! Using a hydrolyzed collagen is recommended, since it dissolves nicely into liquids and smoothies, and it also is already broken down for easy absorption.
I recommend only using products that areNSF Certified or Informed Choice certified. This means they have been third-party tested for contaminants. Supplements are notorious for being contaminated with banned substances, heavy metals, and more.
Some NSF Certified collagen products:
Bubs Naturals ($43 for 20 oz, or $2.15 per oz)
BioSteel ($24 for 7 oz, or $3.42 per oz)
Gnarly Collagen Pro ($45 for 16 oz, or $2.80 per oz)
Klean Athlete ($37.60 for 12 oz, or 3.13 per oz)
Vital Proteins ($25 for 10 oz: $2.50 per oz on their website. Costco sells it for $36 for 24 oz, which is $1.50 per oz.)
PhysiVantage, which I am including because I see a lot of questions about this product, is a popular collagen supplement marketed toward climbers, is $45 for 16 oz, or $2.81 per ounce. It is not third-party tested. It claims to be “supercharged” because it has added vitamin C, tryptophan and leucine, making it a complete protein. However, if you’re already eating a nicely balanced diet, you’ll be getting these amino acids and vitamin C from other sources. It’s not necessary to spend extra money to get this collagen supplement.
Not only is collagen research in its infancy, with limited studies (and the studies themselves having only about 10 subjects), but it’s a stretch to say you need to add amino acids to collagen. There are no studies examining if the Gnarly or PhysiVantage product is superior (or equal to, or inferior to) collagen or whey or anything else. There’s no research on it period. Full stop. Their claims about its (potential) efficacy stem from plain collagen research, not collagen with amino acids, vitamins, or minerals added to it.
It’s difficult to tell from the PhysiVantage supplement label how much leucine it contains. Leucine, a key amino acid involved with signaling muscle protein synthesis, is well-researched as a useful component for muscle strength, rebuilding, and repair. It is found in high-quality whey protein powders. A dose of around 2 grams of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is good. Two grams of just leucine–comparable to what’s in whey–is even better. PhysiVantage has 1.6 g of BCAAs + tryptophan (according to the label), so that’s not great.
Gnarly Collagen Pro, which is also heavily marketed toward climbers, has vitamin C and zinc added to it. Worth noting is that long-term zinc supplementation may cause anemia and copper deficiency. It can also interact with some medications, including antibiotics and diuretics.
I wouldn’t recommend taking a product long-term that has a mineral added unless you know you are deficient and/or unable to get it from the diet. Also, this line on their packaging made me chuckle, “Pasture-raised peptides.” What is that even supposed to mean? As if a bunch of peptide molecules are happily hanging out in a green pasture under blue skies, frolicking about. Marketing madness at its finest. I do give Gnarly credit for being NSF Certified for Sport. Nice touch.
Here’s a breakthrough idea: YOU DON’T HAVE TO USE A SUPPLEMENT THAT IS MARKETED JUST TOWARD CLIMBERS! Look at that price list above. If you’re going to use collagen, pick the one that is third-party tested and the cheapest. Hint: It’s not Gnarly or PhysiVantage.
If you want a complete protein, eat food. It comes with not only all those wonderful amino acids, but also flavor, fats, carbohydrate, fiber, antioxidants, phytochemicals and other nutrients useful for health.
Two eggs have about 2.7 g BCAAs (cost ~$0.50)
3 oz cooked chicken breast have about 4.87 g BCAAs (cost ~$0.50)
16 oz milk has about 3.3 g BCAAs (cost ~$0.50)
If you need a protein powder (there’s a lot of reasons you may want one), use whey if you are not vegan. This is the gold standard and has a tremendous amount of research backing it up. If you are vegan, use a protein blend. And check out this article on vegan nutrition for climbers while you’re at it.
If you want a protein powder for traditional muscle recovery and building, don’t use collagen (nope, not even the “supercharged” stuff). If you want a supplement that MAY help with soft tissue health, you can TRY collagen if you have the budget for it. Be sure to take it with vitamin C before a workout at the correct dose for at least 12 weeks. Otherwise, just eat food!
Do yourself a favor and download the free NSF Certified for Sport app. Nope, I have no affiliation with them, I just think it’s a great app. Use it for any supplement you use and make sure it’s safe and clean. Especially if you’re a competitive athlete subject to doping tests, you NEVER want to use something that isn’t third-party tested for anti-doping standards.
I actually don’t have an affiliation with any supplement company, which is why I am able to write this post. You’re welcome!
Is there a less pricey alternative to collagen?
Good ol’ plain gelatin. Yes, it’s true. You can mix two small packets of unflavored gelatin with Gatorade or anything else and drink before training (gives you around ~15 g). Add in a vitamin C gummy and you’re good to go. You can also try homemade gummies (you would need to eat a 1/2 recipe to get the right dose of gelatin).
Two unflavored gelatin packets cost about $0.85.
Are there any vegan collagen products?
Er, maybe. Scientists are starting to create collagen from genetically modified yeast and bacteria. This obviously hasn’t been researched in an athletic population or compared against actual collagen in peer-reviewed studies looking at outcomes in soft tissue health.
There are a lot of vegan “collagen booster” products out there. These are mostly vitamins, minerals, and various plant “blends.” None of these are the real deal, and would likely not help in any way. The vitamins and minerals would only potentially be beneficial if you are already deficient in that nutrient. And if that’s the case, just supplement with that isolated nutrient, not a blend.
~This is general information only and not nutrition advice. Always consult your healthcare professional before undergoing any diet or lifestyle change.
Scenario: The favorite part of your day has finally arrived. You are at the gym standing below a route that crushed you last time instead of the other way around. But with renewed spirit you have regained strength, composure, and found more mental grit to make another attempt. As you stand below the monstrosity visualizing the crux that defeated you, a familiar nervousness shimmers through your body like goosebumps; your fingers begin to tremble, but you ignore it because this is your time to conquer the project. With your eyes transfixed on the route your arms and neck start projecting the movements up the slab.
Crimp rock with the right hand, left foot into the crack, huge slope rocks for the next three movements with an explosive dynamic move to the jug rocks with both hands. Then come the rocks the width of your fingernails that swallowed you whole the last attempt you made, but not today. You have rested as much as your busy lifestyle will allow, hydrated when you remember and refueled properly, except for skipping a few meals here and there. A quick energy bar and glass of milk in the late afternoon will have to suffice you told yourself. Dismissing the thought your body trails onward and upward reaching the final rock.
As the visualization ends your nervousness and shaky hands are accompanied by an increased heart rate and a slightly dizzy feeling. Your forehead and neck have drops of perspiration that were not there after warm-up. A wash of fatigue suddenly grips your legs, spine, neck, and arms. You feel “off” and know something is not right. Your climbing buddy notices a ghostly paleness to your face and suggests sitting down on the crash mats for a bit.
The glazed-over look in your eyes and confused voice have made him realize something is amiss. In the back of your mind you remember the doctor mentioning something about frequently checking your blood glucose with a new machine, and watching for hypo’s (whatever that means…) and carrying around that expensive glucagon shot thing that you can never remember to grab on your way out the door.
But thankfully it’s not a secret and your climbing partner knows you are a newly diagnosed diabetic. He has family members with the condition and has a well-trained eye for signs/symptoms of a hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic episode. Knowing your typical lifestyle and lack of recent compliance to carbohydrate counting and blood glucose monitoring, he knows you need sugar . . . fast. Reacting quickly, he rushes over to the vending machine and gets a packet of gummies and a regular soda. He instructs you to drink half the soda and eat the gummies. Leaving you with another climber he goes in search of your backpack to find the blood glucose monitor you never use. “It’s time to check your sugar levels, brah”, and after another pause says, “all the time.” In the fogginess of the moment, as your head hangs down, all you can muster is, “Dude, I never even made it on the wall.”
Defeat. Setback. Failure. If you have ever experienced a hypoglycemic episode during an exercise session these thoughts and feelings may seem familiar to you.
Ways to manage a low blood sugar episode
Know how to implement the Rule of 15 when hypoglycemic symptoms occur.
AS SOON AS SYMPTOMS APPEAR:
1: If possible, check blood glucose.
2: Eat/drink 15 grams of fast acting carbohydrate wait 15 minutes.
3: Recheck blood glucose, if below 70 mg/dl eat another 15 grams of fast acting carbohydrate and wait 15 minutes.
4: Recheck blood glucose, if below 70 mg/dl, call 911.
What foods have 15 grams of fast-acting carbohydrate?
3-4 glucose tablets
4-6 oz juice
4-6 oz regular soda
Fun size packet of Skittles
1 packet fruit snacks or gummies
1 small box of raisins
Make a diabetes emergency “Go Bag”
Take it everywhere you go. Include the following:
According to the American Diabetes Association, there are over 1.4 million new cases of diabetes each year (3). If you happen to be newly diagnosed it is imperative to seek counseling from a registered dietitian (RD) or certified diabetes educator (CDCES); treatment is individually based. Every diabetic has unique blood glucose patterns and a RD/CDE will be able to recommend the correct total daily dose of insulin, configure your insulin sensitivity factor, structure meal plans with adequate carbohydrate to fuel your exercise regimen, and educate you on the signs and symptoms of hypo/hyperglycemia.
Taking steps to properly care for yourself can be lifesaving and get you back to crushing projects in no time at all. Long gone will be the days when becoming weak in the knees from looking up at the crag is caused by low blood sugar, next time it will be because the challenge ahead is daunting and intimidating.
We all know how the story ends for the motivated climber, the rush of adrenaline kicks in and the call to, “climb on” rings tried and true. However, this time the equipment to traverse is not just the rope, harness, chalk bag, and carabiner; it includes your “Go Bag” too.
Brooks, M. (2016). Blood glucose monitoring. [Powerpoint slides].Retrieved from https://mediacast.ttu.edu/Mediasite/Play/decf596f0b2748b8ae5f750848e1da791d
Climbing is as much about having a brain as it is about having a bicep. A fluid loss of >2% of your body weight can impair thinking hindering your brain’s ability to keep it together . We can all think back to a time where we lost our cool on a climb and coped by yelling at our belayer. (You mean you haven’t done that? Just me? Oh…)
How do you prevent dehydration when climbing so you can stay mentally sharp and safe?
At minimum, drink eight ounces (1 cup, ~240 milliliters) of water per hour while climbing. Extreme temperatures, your rate of sweat loss, elevation and the level of activity can all influence your total fluid needs. More extreme conditions mean you need more fluid.
Should I use electrolytes?
Hydration is more than just replenishing fluid loss. When we sweat our body loses sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium and chloride in addition to water. These are essential for proper fluid balance. Your body relies on electrolytes for important functions like blood pressure regulation and muscle contraction – this includes your heart.
Sports drinks typically have electrolytes already in them, hence the name electrolyte sports drink! A quick skim of the nutrition label can confirm that sodium, potassium and others are present. Coconut water is commonly treated as the rehydration fluid, but coconut water is too low in sodium to rehydrate you properly.
We lose more sodium in our sweat than any other electrolyte. The low sodium content of coconut water may not recoup your salt losses. Although a delicious beverage, it might not be an ideal recovery drink.
Plain ol’ water is great, but if fluid losses are excessive you need to add salt. Too much water without enough salt could have negative effects on the body ranging from dizziness to severe heart complications. If your clothes have white salt stains after they’ve dried, this could indicate you are losing a boat load of salt in your sweat .
Proper hydration is a skill. Hydration has to be a component of your day, not something you do after the fact when your lips are chapped and you would kill for a glass of water.
How much should I drink?
Before you head out, aim to drink 10-20 ounces an hour depending on your body weight. Add salt to your eggs, potatoes, salad, sandwich, etc to boost your sodium intake.
100 pounds: 10 ounces every hour with sodium
150 pounds: 15 ounces every hour with sodium
200 pounds: 20 ounces every hour with sodium
During exercise your fluid intake is dependent on your sweat losses. It may be worth weighing yourself some time to see on average how much water loss you experience during an hour of activity. Remember extreme heat, altitude and other factors could exacerbate losses. A very general rule of thumb:
8-20 ounces an hour
Consider marking your water bottle every 8 ounces so you have a quick visual of whether or not you have met your fluid mark
After exercise replenish sweat losses: 16-24 ounces for every pound lost.
Divide that amount out over time, so you aren’t chugging 32 ounces in a sitting. That sounds terrible. Eight to 20 ounces an hour is manageable, more than that might lead you to feel nauseated or full. Too much of a good thing, isn’t a good thing. When you can’t properly fuel your body because you are overflowing with fluids you could wind up energy deficient.
The wrap up
Drink fluids my friends. Add salt to your food if you aren’t a fan of electrolyte sports drinks. Take a peek at a nutritional label of your favorite rehydration formula to ensure there are adequate levels of sodium present. We lose more sodium than anything else through sweating and sodium is an important molecule in our bodies! If you struggle to drink enough water, label a water bottle every 8 ounces and drink down at least one line per hour. Always have your water bottle within your line of sight. These strategies can help to make sure you drink enough to hydrate your body and mind.
~This article written by Kaila Dickey
Thomas T, Erdman K, Burke L. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. JAND. 2016; (116)3: 501-528. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.006
A few things can happen! The air is thinner, meaning the oxygen molecules are spread farther apart than at sea level. This means you may feel a bit short of breath for every inhale. You’re simply getting less oxygen per breath that you’re used to–especially if you live at lower altitude and are going up to high altitude.
Since iron is involved with delivering oxygen to tissues in your body (lungs, heart, muscles), it’s important to have adequate iron stores.
Tip 1: Get your iron levels checked about 6 weeks before your trip
Make an appointment with your doctor to get a full iron panel. They’ll know what that means! It usually includes:
Total iron binding capacity
If any deficiencies are detected, your doctor can recommend a correct dose and form of iron to take. It’s not a good idea to just take iron supplements on your own, especially if you don’t even know if you are deficient or anemic.
Food sources of iron that are good to include in your diet include:
Fortified breakfast cereal
Cooking in a cast iron skillet and eating foods with vitamin C help iron absorption as well (citrus foods and berries are common sources of vitamin C).
Tip 2: You need enough calories at high altitude
Alpinists and climbers that spend a lot of time at high altitude sometimes unintentionally lose weight. This can be due to a number of reasons, including the fact that your body is under stress and uses more calories, you may not have access to as much food as usual, and you are working harder than usual due to your outdoor activities. Appetite is sometimes decreased in higher altitudes, which also makes it difficult to get enough food.
To combat unintentional weight loss and make sure you’re well-fueled, try eating high calorie foods, (trail mix, nut butters, fluids with calories, protein bars, chocolate, ghee) adding fat (oils, butters, sauces, gravies) to foods, and packing more food than you think you will need.
Eating the right foods (carbohydrates and calories) can help with altitude sickness!
Tip 3: You need enough fluids at high altitude
A good hydration strategy is key to successful high altitude trips! Your body needs more fluids because not only is it stressed, but the air is usually more arid (less moisture). With each breath, you lose some moisture from your body. Sweating, respiration (breathing), and urinary losses are all greater at high altitude.
There is about a 3% decrease in exercise capacity for every 300 meters above 1500 meters. That can add up to a big difference as you ascend!
Overall blood volume may decrease, which is a bad thing for your exercise performance. With each heart beat, your body is pumping less blood and less oxygen throughout your body. This can lead to fatigue and failed sends.
Always pack more water than you think you need, and/or bring along a water filter if your route has water nearby. Research shows that people are more prone to drink adequate amounts if the water is flavored. Enhance your fluids by using Gatorade or an electrolyte mix, such as Nuun or Skratch Labs.
Electrolytes are also crucial to hydrate properly. You lose sodium, calcium, magnesium, and potassium in sweat. If you’re only drinking water and not replacing electrolytes, you’re setting yourself up for dehydration or over-hydration. Symptoms include nausea, fatigue, and headaches.
Aim for at least 3-5 liters per day (13-21 8-oz cups). Don’t rely on thirst, as this can be unreliable in extreme conditions. Drink at regular intervals every 20-30 minutes to stay ahead of the hydration game. If you become dehydrated, it can take hours or even a full day to recover. Don’t let this happen to you! For an amazing and useful course, check out our Perfect Hydration for Athletes on-demand course!
Tip 4: Eat enough carbohydrates for high altitude adventures
Carbs are king when it comes to climbing! At high altitude, the hormones cortisol and adrenaline kick in. This is a stress hormone that demands more carbohydrates. In addition, the work you are doing to climb or hike is also using carbohydrates.
Fuel regularly by eating every 20-30 minutes. Eat a few bites of carbohydrate-rich foods, such as:
Sports gummies and chews
Crackers, chips, pretzels
Sports drinks with carbs
Gu or gels
Swedish Fish or Sour Patch Kids
If your blood sugar drops, you may feel weak, shaky, dizzy, fatigued, or have a headache. Luckily, with some carbohydrates in your body, you can recover from low blood sugar within about 20-30 minutes. Take a rest and eat some food. Aim for about 30-60 grams of carbs per hour of activity.
You may also want to try beet juice, powder, or shots. There is some evidence that suggests the nitrate in beets (which converts to nitric oxide in your body) may help at high altitudes. Nitric oxide opens up blood vessels to allow for more blood flow and oxygenation.
Tip 5: Always bring more food and water than you think you will need!
You never know when your trip will take longer than planned, conditions on the mountain may change, or someone around you may need some food or fluids. Be prepared for any situation.
Remember, carbs and fluids are your friend! With the right fueling and hydration plan, you’ll have a successful trip and feel amazing and energized while climbing!
~This is general information only and not medical advice. Always consult with your healthcare professional before undergoing any diet or lifestyle change.
While intuitive eating has become an ever rising concept in the nutrition field, I often come across the myth that this approach could not work in the athletic population due to the strict dietary guidelines athletes often face. As a dietitian with a passion for the non-diet approach and performance nutrition, I decided to dig a little deeper to explore the idea of merging the two. Before we dive into how we can unify these nutrition philosophies, we first need to understand what intuitive eating is.
Intuitive Eating Explained
While it is hard to explain intuitive eating “in a nutshell”, the founders describe it as “a self-care eating framework, which integrates instinct, emotion, and rational thought”. In other words, intuitive eating is an approach to eating that honors your health by listening to the messages your body sends to meet physical and psychological needs; essentially encouraging you to be the expert of your own body. An intuitive approach is not focused on weight, calorie goals, or any other external rules that may dictate how we choose to eat and firmly rejects any kind of diet mentality. So, let’s explore how this could apply to athletes!
How Dieting Affects Athletes
As I mentioned above, athletes are often faced with strict, rigid, dietary guidelines to improve performance and/or physical appearance. Oftentimes, however, this can lead to the athlete taking in inadequate energy to meet the needs of their sport and tends to lead to obsessive, unhealthy thoughts around food. While athletes may not be engaging in dieting behaviors specifically for appearance reasons, we still often see restrictive diets with the goal of improved performance, improved health, or improved physical appearance for judgement based sports. What many athletes don’t realize until it’s too late is what dieting really gives them:
Decreased performance and recovery
Due to those strict guidelines, it may seem as though the flexible approach of intuitive eating could not tie into performance nutrition. However, because athletes are at a much higher risk of eating disorders and disordered eating, intuitive eating may be the perfect approach to combat this.
Merging Intuitive Eating and Performance Nutrition
To fully understand how this approach can be applied to athletes, I think it is most helpful to go through each principal of Intuitive Eating.
Reject the Diet Mentality
As I mentioned above, engaging in diet behaviors can have detrimental effects on both performance and overall physical and mental health. It is important to note that to be fully engaged in intuitive eating, one must fully give up any kind of dieting and weight-focused goals. In the process of rejecting the diet mentality, one needs to trust their body to know what is best and understand why strict, rigid, restrictive diets cause more harm than good.
Honor Your Hunger
For the general population, this principle is just what it sounds like-listening to your hunger and keeping your body biologically fed. For athletes, this one can get kind of tricky. When performing in a physically demanding sport, you may feel hungry A LOT, in which case it is extremely important to listen and respond to those cues. On the other hand, many athletes might also find themselves with a suppressed appetite, particularly post exercise. In this case, you may have to get more curious about those hunger cues and listen for the more subtle signals such as:
Thinking about food
Poor performance/energy in training
Make Peace With Food
For both athletes and the general public, food rules can be super common as a result of dieting/diet culture. In order to fully be able to listen to your body and adequately fuel yourself, one needs to first neutralize all foods and remove any type of good/bad label or morality. When we are still restricting certain foods, it will lead to feelings of deprivation, resulting in intense cravings and often bingeing, further convincing us that we cannot “trust ourselves” with these foods. When you are able to view all foods as morally equal, that food loses its power and you are able to eat it when you want without shame, guilt, or urges to overeat.
Challenge The Food Police
Diet culture can often convince athletes that they need to be fearful of certain foods or food groups. Along with making peace with food, you need to actively challenge the “food police” voice in your head that tells you what you can or can’t eat and instead listen to the signals your body is giving you.
Feel Your Fullness
Again, this one is about as it sounds. It is important to listen to the signals your body sends to tell you it is finished eating. In order to do this, however, your body needs to trust that it will be given the food it needs and desires consistently. Athletes often can find themselves eating to the point of overly full from eating excessively large meals due to inadequate fueling during the day. It is important to focus on adequate intake before and after training to avoid getting overly hungry and overeating at meal times.
Discover the Satisfaction Factor
Along with eating enough, it is super important to eat foods that are satisfying both physically and mentally. When you allow yourself to eat what you really want, when you want it, your body will be truly satisfied after meals and be able to eat just the right amount before it tells you it has had enough. When trying to restrict cravings, you will likely find yourself still wanting to eat even when physically full, because your brain and body are not actually satisfied.
Honor Feelings Without Food
While I do not consider emotional eating to be inherently bad, as athletes you can find yourself under a lot of stress and anxiety, sometimes leading to lack of appetite and sometimes leading to eating as a coping mechanism. It is important to reduce the shame and guilt around emotional eating and work with a professional to discover other coping skills to manage those feelings aside from food. It can be helpful to get curious about why you are turning to food. If food is helping, great! If you are using food to numb or ignore the problem, you may want to explore ways to better cope and get to the root of the problem.
Respect your Body
This one can be tough, especially for athletes. Respecting your body means accepting your genetic blueprint. It means trusting that when you are eating and moving in a way that promotes health and performance, your body will naturally settle at the weight that feels best for it and where it can optimally perform. Often, athletes can fall into the trap of thinking a smaller body is a healthier, better performing body (although, we can see this isn’t true by looking at the effects of dieting on athletes). By respecting your body’s natural, set point weight as well as the natural diversity of all bodies, it takes away a lot of the stress and pressure to need to control it and frees up so much brain space to focus on more important things in your life.
Exercise-Feel the Difference
For athletes, the concept of joyful movement looks a little different. While you may need to stick to a training regime, it is still important to be able to listen to your body and know when to dial it back or take a rest day. I firmly believe that athletes can and should still move in a way that is intuitive by allowing flexibility in their training to listen to what their bodies need. Rigidity and inability to rest are warning signs that your relationship with your sport may be becoming disordered. Work on exploring why you enjoy your sport as well as recognizing your identity outside of it. Even as athletes, your sport and training should be an enjoyable experience, not adding stress to your life.
Honor Your Health With Gentle Nutrition
This is where your nutrition knowledge comes into play. As athletes, it is necessary to be getting enough of what you need and at the right times. This principle involves pulling in your knowledge of the macro and micro nutrients to make sure you are getting everything you need pre, during, and post training while also including a wide variety of all foods (including fun foods!).
Key Points to Intuitive Eating
Athletes are often told they need to be extremely rigid in both their eating and training habits, counting every calorie or macro and giving 100% in training every day. In truth, this mindset is what puts athletes at a higher risk for eating disorders and disordered eating. This diet mindset and chronic restriction can lead to decreased performance, higher rates or injury, and increased rates of anxiety and depression. Intuitive eating can and should be applied to performance nutrition to teach athletes how to listen to their bodies messages, respect their set weight, and allow flexibility in their eating habits to reduce the obsessive and unhealthy relationships with food.
More resources you might like:
~This is general information only and not medical advice. Always consult with your healthcare professional before undergoing any diet or lifestyle change.
Weight and climbing: A science-based approach to kill a long-lived myth
By Dr. Gudmund Grønhaug
Let’s face it: climbers often have some issues with weight and body composition is heavily debated amongst climbers from all around the globe.
For this article, I’m going to try to convince you that all you thought you knew about weight, eating and climbing is wrong!
Who am I to tell you this?
I’m a 47-year-old climber from Norway. I’ve been climbing in the range of 5.13b-5.14b for the past 20 years with around 100 ascents of those grades. Last year I did 8A/+ in Fontainebleau alongside FA of bolted climbs up to 5.14a. But what is more important is that I have been working with research for a decade, and have a PhD in chronic injuries in climbing. Keep reading to learn more about the relationship of injuries, level of climbing performance and body mass index (BMI).
As the title suggests, I wanted to see if I could find any scientific proof that being lighter (low BMI) resulted in higher levels of performance and if the heavier (high BMI) had more injuries.
What is body mass index (BMI)?
Ok, so first a few words about BMI.
As we all know, BMI has its limitations regarding prediction of distribution of fat free body mass and percentage of body fat. Used on individual level BMI is useless. Still, this is not a study on individual percentage of body fat. This study used BMI as a tool to understand more about climbers and performance. BMI with all its flaws and problems still is a valid tool in epidemiological studies regarding weight and height.
You do not need to be lighter to be a better climber
Although it may sound counterintuitive; in the study I could not find any associations between BMI, injuries and level of performance.
How can that be?
It has been “known” for ages that being lean and even skinny makes a better climber, right?
As for most topics the reality is a bit more complex than what is shown at first glance. We’ll get to that after a closer look into the science regarding BMI and injuries in climbing.
In a recent systematic review on the influence of BMI on injuries in various sports, there were contradicting and inconclusive findings. It was suggested that BMI alone could not be used to predict onset of an injury, but paired with other variables such as gender, site of injury, training state or separating acute and chronic injuries, BMI may be a strong predictor.
However, a systematic review on athletes from various sports concluded that those with a lower BMI was more prone to injuries regardless of fitness level.
In climbing, the association of BMI, body weight and injuries in climbing varies. Four of the papers concluded that there was no relationship between BMI and climbing injuries. Only one found a relationship. However, neither of the two papers that used body weight alone (instead of BMI) reported a relationship between body weight and injuries in climbing.
So, to sum it up: if we keep to the science, there does not seem to be a connection between BMI and injuries in climbing.
Still, there is a long way to go from research on injuries to levels of performance in the same sport.
Usually what we researchers do is to take our results and compare them with other similar research. Since my research is the first to look at this possible connection of BMI and level of performance in climbing, I have no one to compare my results with. So therefore; the next part is trying to explain why it is perfectly logical that there are no relationship and why you should have that chocolate bar or that extra portion of dinner to get better at climbing!
If we lived in a vacuum, then it would without doubt be beneficial to shave off 10-15 pounds and go climbing. This way we could get strong quickly, or in other words, increase our strength-to-weight ratio.
Should you lose weight to climb better?
It’s commonly thought that it is easier to get a few pounds lighter than a proportionately stronger.
What almost all climbers fail to remember, or what they do not want to think about, is that this gains in strength/weight loss is in a vacuum or for an extremely limited period of time.
As climbers we rely on our body weight as a training tool as well as a tool for performance. As a training tool our body weight is what we use all the time; for climbing, calisthenics, gymnastics, TRX, running….. As for all other kinds of training our body adapts to the training load we are using while training. A climber at 75kg is training and thus adapting to the load of 75 kg. A climber at 80kg is training and adapting to a higher load, but still is using his bodyweight.
So what happens when you reduce the weight? Well, the raining load decreases. It’s just the same as doing bench presses with a lighter rack. Of course it is easier in the start, that’s a no-brainer. But after a month or two the body has readapted and the relative strength is back to where it was 5 kg ago, just with less fuel in the tank.
All progression in training is depending on a few key elements; training load, training intensity, how often the training is repeated and restitution.
In climbing, using our body weight for training, all of these are more or less affected by how much and what we eat:
Training loads in climbing is our body weight and is heavily dependent on what we eat.
Training intensity is depending on how much fuel you have in the tank and how hard you are able to push yourself while training. If you are on some kind of weight-reduction diet or are under-eating because you fear how much weight you might gain, then you have less fuel in the tank to push yourself while you are training.
How often the training is repeated is depending on both how much you are able to push yourself to go train, but also the quality of life in general, rate of restitution, injuries and sickness and quality of sleep. It is proven beyond any doubt that those who under eat, or are on some kind of weight loss diet are having more sick days of work, more injuries (both acute and overuse), needs more time to heal from injuries, have a lower quality of life and lower sleep quality (that is affecting all of the other parameters as well).
Rate of restitution is depending on how much fuel you got in the tank. A body with a small “storage” of energy will repair minor damages gained while training faster than a body with an energy deficiency. Restitution/recovery might be the most important part of training, and having enough fuel in the tank to restitute fast makes it possible to train more often and harder.
So, all in all, having that extra meal, that chocolate bar or simply just enjoying what you eat and making sure you live a happy life will probably make you a both a better climber and a happier person!
Stay healthy, train hard and go smash those numbers!
~Edited by Marisa Michael
~Editor’s note: For more on this topic, see my article in Gym Climber Magazine “Is light weight the right weight?”
~This is general information only and not intended to be medical advice. Always seek the advice of a healthcare professional before undergoing any diet or lifestyle change.
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