Nutrition for Multi-Pitch Climbing

By Amity Warme (Instagram @amity.warme)

Amity crushing it in Yosemite on Golden Gate on El Capitan! photo credit Felipe Nordenflycht @felipesh

Optimize your energy: fueling strategies for your multi-pitch adventure

Climbing a multi-pitch route requires a lot of energy. Often these adventures involve a long approach with a heavy pack, hours of climbing, exposure to heat, cold, wind, and altitude, hauling or climbing with a pack, and a long descent. All of these factors increase your daily energy expenditure. In order to perform your best, maintain mental acuity throughout the day, and recover quickly, it is critical to fuel yourself with adequate intake before, during, and after the climb. Continue reading for tips, tricks, and examples of how to fuel for your multi-pitch adventure. 

The night before:

  • Packing snacks for your big day is important but don’t neglect nutrition the day before either. Eating a nutrient rich dinner with plenty of carbohydrates the night before your multipitch mission will help maximize your energy for the next day. Your muscles store energy in the form of glycogen. Consuming carbs before your adventure ensures that your glycogen stores will be topped off and ready for big energy expenditure the next day. 
  • Examples of balanced, nutrient dense meals include the following: 
    • Grain bowl:
      • Brown rice or quinoa
      • Grilled chicken or tofu
      • Roasted veggies 
      • Garlic tahini dressing
    • Pasta:
      • Whole wheat or chickpea noodles
      • Plant based meatballs or grilled chicken
      • Sauteed veggies
      • Red sauce or pesto
    • Tacos:
      • Grilled chicken or tempeh on tortillas
      • Roasted veggies
      • Black or pinto beans
      • Fresh salsa and avocado

The morning of:

  • Start your day off fueled up and well hydrated. Combine carbohydrate rich foods for quick energy with protein and fat for more sustained energy. A nutritious breakfast is especially important if your multipitch climb involves a long approach. If you don’t fuel well and hydrate early, you risk arriving at your climb already in an energy deficit for the day. This sets you up for decreased performance and reduced mental capacity.
  • Examples of pre-climb breakfasts include any of the following or a combination:
    • Oatmeal with the fixings (options include):
      • Oats 
      • Hemp, chia, or flax seeds
      • Nuts (walnuts, almonds, pecans)
      • Berries or other sliced fruit
      • Raisins or other dried fruit
      • Peanut butter
    • Granola with milk of choice or yogurt 
      • Topped with fruit 
    • Omelet or scrambled eggs
      • Potatoes 
      • Diced veggies 
      • Toast with jam
    • Pancakes or protein pancakes
      • Topped with peanut butter and fruit

Throughout the day:

  • Choose snacks that are easy to eat, easy to digest, and efficient to pack. Avoid heavy foods that will take up extra space and weight in your pack but also include foods that you like and will be excited to eat. Aim to munch on something every hour you are out on your climb. Continuously taking in small amounts of fuel will help keep you going all day and prevent bonking from letting your energy levels get too low. A good way to do this is to eat a few bites between each pitch while you are belaying or waiting for your partner to rack up. Staying ahead of your hunger is extremely helpful. Don’t wait until you are ravenous to start eating. Munch on small, carb-rich snacks and sip fluids consistently. Keep snacks easily accessible in a chest or pants pocket or in a small pouch clipped to your harness.
  • Examples of easy to pack and easy to eat crag snacks include:
    • Dried fruit (dates, figs, mango, apricots)
    • Energy bars with simple, whole food ingredients 
      • EnduroBites, RX bars, KIND bars
    • Tortilla with some combo of peanut butter, honey, banana, nutella
      • These tend to get less smashed than sandwiches
    • Peanut butter and honey/jam/banana sandwich
    • Trail mix with dried fruit, nuts, seeds
    • Granola
    • Pretzels (something salty is nice and encourages you to keep drinking fluids)
    • Nut butter packs sweetened with honey
    • Honey stingers
    • String cheese
    • Chocolate 
    • Jerky
    • Caffeinated gel packs

After the adventure:

  • The sooner you start refueling after your big day, the faster you will recover. Have some snacks or a meal packed and waiting for you in the car that you can eat when you get down. A combination of carbs and protein is ideal at this time. Carbs will help reload the glycogen stores in your muscles and protein will help jumpstart repair the repair of any tissue and muscle damage incurred throughout the big day.
  • Examples of recovery foods include:
    • Protein shake, fruit, and pretzels
    • Sandwich
    • Smoothie
    • Tortilla wraps with hummus and avocado
    • Fruit dipped in nut butter
    • Leftovers from dinner the night before
  • Energy expenditure is HIGH on multipitch climbing days. 
    • Approach (often long)
    • Climbing for hours of the day
    • Exposed to the elements all day (heat, cold, wind, altitude)
    • Often hauling a pack or climbing with a pack which increases expenditure
    • Moving almost constantly throughout the day
    • Descent (often long)
Want more climbing nutrition tips! Check out Nutrition for Climbers: Fuel for the Send and follow us on Instagram @nutritionforclimbersbook

11 things that impact your climbing besides weight

The message is pervasive and loud. You must lose weight if you want to climb better. But, do you really?

Nope nope nope. Not really.

We have several studies that look at anthropometrics (measurable body characteristics like weight, height, body mass index, and ape index). Researchers mostly found that anthropometrics did not correlate with climbing ability. Two studies found that only about 1.8-4% of climbing ability is due to anthropometrics.

Climbing ability is mostly attributed to trainable aspects, such as flexibility, strength, and endurance. And some non-trainable aspects that come with time, such as hours training per week and years of climbing experience. There may be some instances where a climber could periodize weight loss in order to send a certain project, but this should not be a general recommendation.

What does this tell us about how to improve? Don’t trust that knee-jerk reaction to lose weight in order to send your project. There are many other things you can focus on. Narrowly focusing on weight loss in order to climb better is myopic and often counterproductive. Explore our resource page for more on relative energy deficiency in sport, disordered eating, and how weight loss can negatively impact your climbing and health.

Things you can change to improve climbing ability (besides weight)

  1. Equipment: Do you have the right shoes for the type of climbing you’re doing? And for your skill level? Shoes can make a difference in how well you climb. One study from the International Rock Climbing Research Association (Nov 2021) showed that speed climbers improved by merely switching to a stiff rubber sole, rather than a softer one. Do you have the right type of harness? Is it comfortable and safe? If it is ill-fitting, you may be climbing worse than if it’s an appropriate fit for your style of climbing and body type.
  2. Nutrition: Proper fueling can make a huge difference in any sport or training program. Are you fueling with the right kinds of foods at the right time? Are you recovering with the proper macronutrients? Do you eat adequate overall calories? All of these things can make a big difference in your climbing ability over time! Nutrition for Climbers: Fuel for the Send is the definitive guide to climbing nutrition. Fueling right is a no-brainer.
  3. Hydration: Dehydrated athletes experience greater rate of perceived exertion, decreased cognitive ability, decreased coordination, decreased power, and decreased concentration. All these things are kinda important when climbing. Keep yourself hydrated with the proper electrolytes to stay fresh and strong.
  4. Strength: This one is pretty obvious. You have to have strength in order to climb up a cliff or wall. A nice, trainable characteristic that has nothing to do with dieting or restricting your food.
  5. Flexibility: Hello, heel hook. Nice to see you. Glad that could happen because you’re flexible. Ditto for any awkward route that involves specific moves suited to a master yogi.
  6. Endurance: Ever get winded halfway up the route? One case study (also from IRCRA conference Nov 2021) showed a climber that improved four grades in three months just by training endurance with a structured HIIT (high intensity interval training) program. Endurance is essential for any climber, but particularly big wall/multi-pitch type stuff. Train your endurance to improve your climbing performance.
  7. Skills: A skilled climber knows how to keep elbows in, hips to the wall, weight the foot correctly, and a ton of other technical skills and bespoke movements that a beginner doesn’t understand. Gaining skills and knowledge of climbing technique is an effective way to improve climbing ability without losing weight.
  8. Supplements: Although supplements in climbing research is far behind many other sports (I only know of two that looked at beta alanine in climbers), we can draw from other sports with similar movement patterns to determine what supplements may help with climbing performance. Creatine, beta alanine, nitrates, and sodium bicarbonate all are likely beneficial and well-researched in athletes. (Always check with your doctor before adding any supplement to your routine).
  9. Mental training: A route can shut you down if you’re not in the right state of mind. Outdoor climbers face unknowns such as weather, rock integrity, anchor integrity, and more. Indoor climbers, especially during comps, can be shaken by other competitors, the route setting style, timing of the comp, and pressure to perform. Climbing is inherently a bit freaky for many simply because of the height. Frustration from falling or not sending can get you in a bad mental state. Reframing your thoughts and understanding self-talk can help with climbing performance. The November IRCRA conference had a sports psychologist present her findings that several sessions with a psychologist actually helped improve climbing ability. Imagine that.
  10. Beta: You gotta get the beta in order to send it! Good beta can improve ability.
  11. Repeated attempts: Research shows that climbers that are familiar with the route are more efficient with their moves. This can translate into better climbing on that route.

I hope this opened up your mind a little to the possibility that there are several things you can do besides lose weight in order to climb better!

For more resources:

This is an excellent documentary about climbers and eating disorders
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=thtDQJGrO5s
A 56-page PDF for coaches and athletes on RED-S, disordered eating, and how to improve your relationship with food, body, and sport
Free downloadable climbing fueling guides!

What Kyra Condie ate to fuel her Olympic climbing debut

Kyra Condie’s Instagram post after competing in the Olympics

It’s always fascinating to learn what top-level athletes eat. Kyra Condie, Olympian and elite climber, was kind enough to speak with me over the phone so I could pick her brain about her experience with fueling in Tokyo.

I first asked how she prepped before arriving in Tokyo. She said she had met with a dietitian from the USOPC who helped her figure out some fueling needs. Since she’s vegetarian, Condie has additional challenges to fueling herself well. (See our post on vegan diets for climbers if you want some tips!)

Condie packed tons of snacks to have on hand, “I figured it was better to have too much than to run out!” She brought along things like:

  • Trail mix
  • Ritz crackers
  • Granola bars
  • Chia squeeze pudding
  • Nutri-Grain bars
  • Oatmeal

She also brought her own coffee pot to boil water and prepare simple foods like oatmeal in her room. She packed a lunch box full of trail mix and other snacks to the comps.

As far as meals, “The dining hall was pretty accommodating,” says Condie. It was open 24/7 which was nice to have access to food whenever she needed it, especially for athletes arriving from a different time zone where your eating schedule doesn’t match Tokyo’s. She said the timing of eating was different, and she had to adapt to the new time zone and the comp schedules.

There was a fridge available to the athletes, so she could send someone out to get groceries for her. Due to covid restrictions, the athletes were not allowed to go out themselves. This was a bit of a challenge trying to describe exactly what to buy, especially in a foreign country. Condie says she at a lot of silken tofu cups, which was a great addition to her diet.

She also says, “I drank for Propel than I ever have in my life!” Because that is what was easily available to the athletes.

A final tip from Condie that will work well for any traveling athlete: “Try to find a food specific to the country that you’re traveling in that you like and works well for you.” For Tokyo, this meant soba noodles. If she wasn’t sure what would be available, she knew soba noodles would work well. She says she does this for World Cups as well and it’s a great trick to staying fueled.

A huge thank you to Kyra Condie for sharing your experience!

Macronutrients for Climbers

Welcome to the basics! As a climber, you need a balance of fats, carbohydrates, and protein to help your body function at its best, prevent injury, and optimize recovery. While this post may seem basic to some, it’s the foundation of many body processes and is useful to understand!

There are a lot of nutrition myths and misinformation out there. Understanding what is true about how your body uses different nutrients can help set you up for success.

Energy

Food provides energy for your body. Adequate energy is essential for your body to have the resources it needs to function. Your body uses this energy to maintain normal body processes, such as heart rate, breathing, producing new cells to maintain tissues, digestion, and more.

Energy in food is measured in calories or kilojoules. Your body needs a certain amount of baseline calories to exist, and then you need additional calories to do whatever else you want your body to do. Working, daily household tasks, exercising, and even thinking require extra calories. Getting the right amount to support your body will help you be healthy.

Energy needs vary from person to person based on their gender, age, body composition, and activity level. They also vary if you are stressed, injured, or sick. Energy needs also fluctuate from day to day or week to week—they aren’t always exact or static.

Macronutrients are nutrients that provide energy. These are carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol. Let’s take a look at each one.

Carbohydrate

Role in the body: Many popular diets eliminate or limit carbohydrates (or carbs), but carbohydrates an important macronutrient for sports performance. Whether you are climbing, skiing, hiking, lifting weights, or anything else, your body needs carbohydrates to fuel those movements.

Carbohydrate is the fuel in the anaerobic energy system and the aerobic energy systems. If you are doing a moderate-paced endurance exercise, your body is using a mix of both carbohydrates and fat to fuel that workout. If you are doing an intense move, such as a sprint or power lift, your body uses carbohydrate to fuel that movement. Carbohydrate provides four calories per gram.

The food you eat, including carbohydrates, also keep your blood sugar regulated and provide fuel for your brain. Glucose is a form of simple sugar (carbohydrate) in your blood. It serves as fuel for your cells and brain. Your body likes to keep blood sugar levels regular so you can feel optimal and perform your best.

Glycogen in a storage form of glucose. It is stored in your body in your liver and skeletal muscles. Glycogen helps keep your blood sugar stable by breaking down into glucose when you are sleeping or fasting. It also is on-board fuel in your muscles to power any muscle contractions.

Most people have around 1200-1400 calories of glycogen in their muscles and liver. If you exercise for about two to three hours without eating any food or drinking any fluids that provide calories and carbohydrates, you can run out of fuel and “bonk.” This is common in endurance evens such as marathons and triathlon, as well as cross country skiing or all-day adventures.

Bonking simply means your body runs out of fuel to power your exercise. Symptoms include feeling weak, shaky, and lethargic, with heavy legs and fatigue. You can prevent bonking by eating regularly, about 30-60 grams of quickly-digestible carbohydrate per hour (such as a white bagel, gummies/chews, juice, honey, or sports drink, or even up to 90 grams per hour for long endurance events. You can recover from bonking by stopping your exercise, eating quickly-digestible carbohydrate, and waiting about 20-30 minutes for your blood sugar to come back to normal.

There are no “good” or “bad” carbs. They are simply fuel for your body. Some carbohydrates, such as fruits and whole grains, contain vitamins, minerals, and fiber, which makes them a good choice for overall health. Others, such as fruit juice and gummy candy, do not have useful nutrients other than the carbohydrate itself—but they are very useful in certain situations.

Eating regular meals help regulate blood sugar. Eating before exercise if it’s been more than two to four hours since your last meal can help you feel fueled and energized for the workout.

Food sources: Main food sources of carbohydrate include:

  • Grains: rice, bread, pasta, oats, barley, cereal, etc.
  • Fruit and fruit juice
  • Starchy vegetables: potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes, squash, corn, peas
  • Legumes and lentils: kidney beans, garbanzo beans, lima beans, etc.
  • Sweets and desserts: candies, cookies, cake, soda (not diet)
  • Milk and yogurt

Recommended intake

Your carbohydrate needs may vary depending on your activity level. The baseline carbohydrate needs for normal healthy adults is around three to five grams per kilogram per day. If you are doing heavy training or have a long day of hiking, skiing, or climbing, you will need more carbohydrate, up to 7-12 grams per kilogram per day.

Protein

Role in the body: Protein plays a number of different roles in the body. It’s an incredibly important nutrient for overall health and also sports performance. It’s involved with muscle growth and repair, bone health, immune function, tendon and ligament health, skin, and all organs.

Protein is made up of amino acids, which are like building blocks for protein. Some amino acids are not essential, meaning your body can manufacture them on its own. Some are essential, which means you need to get them in your diet in order for your body to operate at optimal health. Protein provides four calories per gram.

Eating a wide variety of foods usually supplies enough overall protein and amino acids to be healthy. Those at risk for not getting enough protein are vegans, vegetarians, and people that are dieting or restricting their food intake.

Protein also helps people feel full and satisfied after a meal. Adequate protein is needed to help preserve lean muscle mass when trying to lose weight.

It is a crucial nutrient for athletes. Whether you are a climber, skier, hiker, alpinist, runner or anything else, your body needs enough protein to perform optimally.

Food sources:

  • Meat, fish, poultry
  • Eggs
  • Dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese)
  • Legumes (beans and lentils)
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Whole grains
  • Soy products (tofu, tempeh, edamame)

In general, proteins from animal sources, such as eggs, meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products are better absorbed and used in your body than protein from plant sources (like tofu, beans, lentils, and nuts).

Protein from whole food sources offer a variety of nutrients, as well as fiber if it is from a plant source. This is usually better than using a supplement such as a protein powder, although in some cases protein powders can be useful.

Recommended intake:

The recommended amount of protein you may need varies widely based on your individual health history and your current exercise program. The minimum requirement in most countries is around 0.8 grams per kilogram per day.

Athletes will need much more to function optimally. A strength athlete, or an athlete undergoing a very intense training program may need up to 2.2 grams per kilogram per day, while an endurance athlete with a moderate training program may need around 1.2-1.6 grams per kilogram per day. If you are recovering from a surgery or injury, you may also have increased protein needs, from  about 1.3-2.0 grams per kilogram per day.

Find a qualified dietitian to help you determine your own calorie, protein, and carbohydrate needs for your particular situation.

Fat

Fat sometimes has a bad reputation, but fat is essential for life. Your body needs fat for absorbing fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K). Fat makes up almost all cell membranes in the body. It also provides energy and essential fatty acids your body cannot do without. Fat provides nine calories per gram.

Two main types of fats are saturated and unsaturated. In general, it’s best to get most of your fat as unsaturated, as this is better for overall health and risk for heart disease. Foods like olive oil, fish, nuts, seeds, and avocado provide healthful fats that are beneficial for your body.

Fat also plays a role in energy metabolism. This means that fat can be a fuel source for your exercise and training. Fat is used as a fuel source, along with some carbohydrate, when the body is exercising at a moderate intensity, such as jogging, walking, hiking, or skiing—anything you can do for several minutes to hours.

Food sources:

  • Nuts and seeds
  • Avocados
  • Fish, meat, and poultry
  • Eggs
  • Olives
  • Coconut
  • Oils
  • Full-fat dairy products, such as butter, yogurt, milk, cheese, and ice cream
  • Fried foods, such as French fries, donuts, or breaded fried meat and fish
  • Baked goods made with fat, such as biscuits, cake, and cookies

Recommended intake

Most countries recommend limiting your intake to about 60-70 grams of fat per day, with 10% or less of total energy intake as saturated fat, and little to no trans fats.

Alcohol

Alcohol is technically a nutrient, as it provides energy at seven calories per gram. However, it is not recommended to be a large part of your diet, as it is a toxin and also can be very harmful to health, as well as addicting.

Alcohol should be used only in moderation or not at all. Consult with your healthcare professional before using alcohol to ensure it will not interact with any medications or cause harm to your body.

While alcohol is not recommended, it is included here because many people drink it on a regular basis. It’s important to be aware of how it can affect your training. Alcohol can interfere with muscle rebuilding and repair after a training session, decrease concentration, interfere with quality sleep, dehydrate you, and decrease coordination. It can also add additional unwanted calories that your body may not need, and thwart your ability to eat a good meal if you are drinking instead of eating.

With the right balance of macronutrients, and variety of food in your diet, you can feel better and climb harder.

~This is general nutrition information and not medical or nutrition advice. Always consult with a healthcare professional before undergoing any diet or lifestyle change.

Micronutrients for Athletes

I often get the question, “Should I take a multivitamin?” The answer is, it depends! It’s best to only take a vitamin or mineral supplement if you have a known deficiency. You can get tested at your doctor to see if you are deficient, and get recommendations on if you need to take anything, what to take, what form to take it in, and how much to take. Taking a vitamin or mineral supplement as “insurance” or “just in case” is not recommended. At best, it can result in wasted money and really “expensive pee,” because your body will just excrete out water-soluble vitamins it doesn’t need. At worst, you could end up with a toxicity or negative health outcomes.

Also consider if someone is recommending that you take a supplement, vitamin, or mineral—do they have an incentive for you to take it? Are they selling it? Or do they get a percentage of the sale? If so, don’t do it. If you truly need a supplement, you can get it from neutral third-parties. Multi-level marketing often sells questionable products and there is nothing you can only get from MLM that you couldn’t get at a normal store that you would actually NEED.

Also be sure your supplement is clean from contaminants by looking for the NSF Certified for Sport, Informed Choice, or USP labels.

Micronutrients do not provide energy but play an important role in health and the way your body functions. There are many micronutrients, but we picked out the most common ones and made this reference chart for you. Keep in mind, it doesn’t list every single function, nor every single food source (that would be impossible!).

Recommended intake is set for most adults age 18 and up based on guidelines from the United States. You may need a different amount based on your health history. Always check with your doctor before taking any vitamin, mineral, or supplement.

MicronutrientWhat it doesFood sourcesRecommended intake per dayImplications for sports performance
IronCarries oxygen to tissues, helps with metabolism and cell functionMeat, seafood, nuts, beans, dark leafy vegetables, fortified cereals and breadsMales 8 mg, Females 18 mgIf deficient, may feel weak, fatigued
CalciumBone health and strength, nerve conduction, enzyme and hormone function, muscle contractionDairy products, fish with edible bones (sardines), kale, broccoli, fortified soy and cereal products1000 mg,Supports bone health and may help prevent injury
ZincHelps with numerous cell functions, immunity, growth in childrenFortified cereals, meat, poultry, beans, nuts, seafood, dairy productsMales 8 mg, Females 11 mgIs lost in sweat; needs to be replaced with diet after heavy sweating
MagnesiumEnzyme reactions, muscle contraction, blood pressure regulation, bone healthMeat, poultry, eggs, fruit, leafy green vegetables, fortified cerealsMales 420 mg, Females 320 mgIs lost in sweat; needs to be replaced with diet after heavy sweating. If deficient, may affect ability to metabolize food for energy in the cell.
PotassiumHeart beat, nerve conduction, blood pressure regulationMeat, milk, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains4.7 gIs lost in sweat; needs to be replaced with diet after heavy sweating. If low, affects heart rate.
Vitamin AImmunity, vision, eye health, skin health, bone growthLiver, milk, eggs, leafy vegetables, carrots, sweet potatoes, broccoli, squash, cantaloupeMales 900 mcg Retinal Activity Equivalents (RAE), Females 700 mcg RAEMay help with skin healing when wounded.
Vitamin EAntioxidant, immunity, cell functionVegetable oils, nuts, spinach, broccoli, fortified foods (often used as a preservative)15 mgNone known
Vitamin DNerve function, muscle function, bone health, immunityFortified foods, fatty fish, egg yolks, mushrooms. Also synthesized in your skin when in the sun15 mcgAdequate status may help with muscle contraction, mood, and bone health
Vitamin KBlood clotting, bone healthGreen leafy vegetables, vegetable oil, meat, cheese, eggs, soybeansMales 120 mcg, Females 90 mcgNone known
Vitamin CAntioxidant, iron absorption, immunity, skin healthCitrus fruits, bell peppers, kiwi, broccoli, berries, potatoes, tomatoes, cantaloupeMales 90 mg, Females 75 mgMay help with wound healing. May help reduce or prevent respiratory tract infections in a physiologically stressed athlete.
Vitamin B 6Enzyme reactions, metabolism, immunity, fetal brain developmentPoultry, fish, potatoes, fruit, legumes, soy products, bananas, watermelon1.3 mgNone known.
Vitamin B 12Nerve and cell function, DNA productionLiver, clams, fish, meat, poultry, nutritional yeast, fortified cereal2.4 mcgNone known.
RiboflavinCell function, energy metabolismEggs, meat, milk, asparagus, broccoli, spinach, fortified cerealMales 1.3 mg, Females 1.1 mgNone known.
ThiamineEnergy metabolism, nerve functionMeat, fish, pork, whole grains, fortified cerealMales 1.2 mg, Females 1.1 mgNone known.
NiacinEnergy metabolism, cell functionMeat, fish, poultry, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fortified cerealMales 16 mg Niacin Equivalents (NE), Females 14 mg NENone known.
BiotinEnergy metabolism, skin/hair/nail healthMeat, fish, eggs, nuts and seeds, sweet potatoes, spinach, broccoli30 mcgNone known.
FolateCell metabolism, DNA productionLiver, fortified cereal, leafy green vegetables, fruit, nuts, legumes, peas400 mcgNone known.
~This is general information only and not health or nutrition advice. Always consult with your healthcare professional before undergoing any diet or lifestyle change.

Nutrition Tips for Para Climbers/Adaptive Climbers

Nutrition tips for competition and recovery: Adapt your nutrition strategy to match your climbing style. For example, if you spend more time in static holds, more sustained movement (rather than dynos and quick, intense movements), or more endurance-style climbing, fuel your body to match those needs.

A short climbing session may need just 30-60 grams of carbohydrate before the session. A longer session with more endurance climbing would benefit from eating protein along with the carbohydrates, as this is more slowly digested, giving you longer-lasting energy.

Those with spinal cord dysfunction may experience decreased muscle mass below the level of the lesion, and a reduced resting energy expenditure. This simply means you may need less calories overall on rest days.

Some athletes with spasticity or other movement disorders can actually have increased energy needs since the muscles are firing much more often. It’s often difficult to estimate energy needs and expenditure for para-athletes. If you need specialized help with fueling your climbing, seek out professional help from your doctor and dietitian.

Temperature Regulation: Difficulty regulating body temperature is common with neurologic impairment. The impairment can affect the ability to shiver or sweat in the affected body regions. In addition, certain medications used for some movement disorders can cause you to be more susceptible to overheating. Please ask your doctor about any side effects in temperature regulation. 

In warm temperatures you need to ensure you are hydrating adequately. In general, about eight ounces of fluid per hour in normal climbing conditions is enough. You may need more if you are climbing in more extreme conditions, such as high altitude, heat, humidity, or extreme cold. Using cold, icy beverages in the heat can help lower your body temperature. Knowing your own personal sweat rate and bowel schedule can help you plan for a successful climbing session. When environmental temperatures are cool, try dressing in layers or using hot beverages to stay warm.

Skin: Climbers with adaptive equipment, such as a wheelchair or prosthesis, need to pay special attention to their skin health. Areas of skin that don’t have normal feeling are at increased risk of pressure and rubbing injuries.  If repeated skin breakdown is an issue, work with your doctor, equipment provider, or a professional prosthesis/orthotist to ensure you get the right equipment and the right fit for your body. 

Athletes need to eat and hydrate adequately to support skin health. If your skin is prone to breakdown and pressure sores, ask your doctor or dietitian about nutrition for skin healing and preventing skin breakdown. Some supplements, such as vitamin C and zinc, may be appropriate on a short-term basis. 

Bone Health: Para climbers may be at risk for decreased bone density due to decreased ability to perform weigh-bearing exercises in some athletes. Adequate overall calories and protein are important, as well as calcium and vitamin D. Ask your doctor before taking any supplements.

Recommended daily intake of calcium:

  • Children 9-18 years old need 1300mg daily
  • Adults 19-70 years old need 1000mg daily

Recommended daily intake of vitamin D:

  • Children 0-18 years old need 400-600IU
  • Adults 19-70 years old need 600IU

Want to learn more? Get the book Nutrition for Climbers: Fuel for the Send!

~This is general information only and not medical advice. Always consult with your healthcare provider before undergoing any diet or lifestyle change.

A Dietitian’s Guide to Collagen for Climbers

Collagen seems to be a really popular topic right now. I keep seeing climbers post on social media questions like,” Do I need collagen? It seems useful. Will it really help?”

What are the claims around collagen supplementation?

There are a lot of claims around collagen, ranging from improving skin, hair, and nail health, to helping prevent tendon injury, to improving bone density and joint pain. For the purpose of this blog post, we’ll focus on what collagen may be able to do for climbers. Sure, you may want luxurious hair, but what about skin healing and tendon/ligament health? That’s probably more important to you as a climber.

What is collagen?

Collagen is an abundant protein in your body. It is part of the structure of bones, muscles, skins, tendons, and ligaments. In theory, if you supplement with collagen, it may help with tendon and ligament health. Here’s a nice quick read on collagen supplement basics. And here’s a really beautiful and comprehensive read on collagen for injury prevention.

Collagen (a common brand is Vital Proteins ) is made up of bovine (cow) hide (they also have a marine version). Some is made of skin, bones, and fish scales. Clearly, this is not a vegan or vegetarian product!

The structure of a tendon is made up of a triple helix composed three amino acids: hydroxyproline, proline, and glycine. The uniqueness of collagen supplement seems to be that these three amino acids in high amounts are possibly useful for soft tissue health when you orally supplement.

It could be potentially be tough to get these amino acids in the right amounts just through diet, especially if your tendons are injured and may have increased need. Dietary sources of glycine include meat, fish, dairy products, egg whites, bone broth, and chicken and pork skin. Your body also makes its own glycine.

Is all the collagen hype backed by research? Read on, my friends.

What is the current research around collagen for athletes?

We’ve got a little bit! It seems that the hype, marketing, and products are way beyond the actual research. What we do have is promising, but much more is needed.

Collagen may benefit athletes by:

  • Strengthening or thickening tendons and ligaments
  • Decreasing knee pain in one study
  • Possibly decrease injury rate
  • Potential for aiding in skin wound healing

What other nutrients are important for tendon health?

Vitamin C is important. It aids in collagen synthesis. Meaning, if your body is trying to build up collagen in your soft tissue, it needs vitamin C to do it. Current research suggests taking vitamin C with collagen (recommendations range from about 15-500 g). Food sources of vitamin C include oranges, strawberries, peppers, broccoli, potatoes, and more.

Copper is also an important nutrient for collagen synthesis. It helps build the collagen structure in your body. If you are not deficient, there is no additional advantage to adding more copper. It’s only useful if you were already deficient and then corrected that deficiency. Food sources of copper include shellfish, seeds, nuts, wheat bran, and chocolate (Heck yeah!).

Overall adequate calorie intake is also really important. If you are dieting, going through an eating disorder, or even inadvertently not eating enough, your tissue health can be compromised. Your body needs enough energy in the form of food/calories in order to fuel your workouts and recover, rebuild, and repair after the workout. Collagen supplements may not do much if your body is struggling to get enough overall calories.

Other nutrients important for general injury treatment and prevention:

  • Vitamin A
  • Zinc
  • Glutamine
  • Arginine
  • Glucosamine
  • Vitamin D
  • Calcium

So you can see that narrowly focusing on just collagen may not be the best thing for your overall tendon health. A food-first philosophy will help you get a wide range of nutrients to keep your body healthy. In general, eating high-quality protein (lean meat, chicken, fish, eggs, dairy), whole grains, nuts & seeds, fruits & vegetables, and legumes is a great way to get the nutrients your body needs.

How much collagen do you need to take to see results?

Most research shows you need to take around 10-20 g per day, along with the vitamin C (doses in the research vary–probably around 50g is adequate). This may need to be done for at least 12 weeks consistently to see any results. Take it 30-60 minutes before your training or physical therapy session. The loading stimulus of the workout helps strengthen tendons.

I’ve seen some food products where they add collagen (marketing hype much?) and it’s not even a therapeutic dose. Like this Skinny Pop popcorn (face palm). Similarly, I’ve seen a lot of influencers and well-meaning nutritionists create recipes using collagen powder, like collagen energy bites, cookies, muffins, and pancakes. But if you only use one scoop of collagen (10 g) for the whole recipe, you’re not getting the adequate dose of collagen to do anything meaningful for your tendons.

And no, do not mix your pricey PhysiVantage collagen supplement (which includes vitamin C) with hot coffee as they suggest. Heat destroys vitamin C. So you paid a premium for vitamin C to be added to your collagen, and then you just obliterated it.

What collagen product should I use?

There are a few of them out there! Using a hydrolyzed collagen is recommended, since it dissolves nicely into liquids and smoothies, and it also is already broken down for easy absorption.

I recommend only using products that are NSF Certified or Informed Choice certified. This means they have been third-party tested for contaminants. Supplements are notorious for being contaminated with banned substances, heavy metals, and more.

Some NSF Certified collagen products:

  • Bubs Naturals ($43 for 20 oz, or $2.15 per oz)
  • BioSteel ($24 for 7 oz, or $3.42 per oz)
  • Gnarly Collagen Pro ($45 for 16 oz, or $2.80 per oz)
  • Klean Athlete ($37.60 for 12 oz, or 3.13 per oz)
  • Vital Proteins ($25 for 10 oz: $2.50 per oz on their website. Costco sells it for $36 for 24 oz, which is $1.50 per oz.)

PhysiVantage, which I am including because I see a lot of questions about this product, is a popular collagen supplement marketed toward climbers, is $45 for 16 oz, or $2.81 per ounce. It is not third-party tested. It claims to be “supercharged” because it has added vitamin C, tryptophan and leucine, making it a complete protein. However, if you’re already eating a nicely balanced diet, you’ll be getting these amino acids and vitamin C from other sources. It’s not necessary to spend extra money to get this collagen supplement.

Not only is collagen research in its infancy, with limited studies (and the studies themselves having only about 10 subjects), but it’s a stretch to say you need to add amino acids to collagen. There are no studies examining if the Gnarly or PhysiVantage product is superior (or equal to, or inferior to) collagen or whey or anything else. There’s no research on it period. Full stop. Their claims about its (potential) efficacy stem from plain collagen research, not collagen with amino acids, vitamins, or minerals added to it.

It’s difficult to tell from the PhysiVantage supplement label how much leucine it contains. Leucine, a key amino acid involved with signaling muscle protein synthesis, is well-researched as a useful component for muscle strength, rebuilding, and repair. It is found in high-quality whey protein powders. A dose of around 2 grams of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is good. Two grams of just leucine–comparable to what’s in whey–is even better. PhysiVantage has 1.6 g of BCAAs + tryptophan (according to the label), so that’s not great.

Gnarly Collagen Pro, which is also heavily marketed toward climbers, has vitamin C and zinc added to it. Worth noting is that long-term zinc supplementation may cause anemia and copper deficiency. It can also interact with some medications, including antibiotics and diuretics.

I wouldn’t recommend taking a product long-term that has a mineral added unless you know you are deficient and/or unable to get it from the diet. Also, this line on their packaging made me chuckle, “Pasture-raised peptides.” What is that even supposed to mean? As if a bunch of peptide molecules are happily hanging out in a green pasture under blue skies, frolicking about. Marketing madness at its finest. I do give Gnarly credit for being NSF Certified for Sport. Nice touch.

Look at the cute peptides in that pasture! Quick, take a picture!

Here’s a breakthrough idea: YOU DON’T HAVE TO USE A SUPPLEMENT THAT IS MARKETED JUST TOWARD CLIMBERS! Look at that price list above. If you’re going to use collagen, pick the one that is third-party tested and the cheapest. Hint: It’s not Gnarly or PhysiVantage.

If you want a complete protein, eat food. It comes with not only all those wonderful amino acids, but also flavor, fats, carbohydrate, fiber, antioxidants, phytochemicals and other nutrients useful for health.

  • Two eggs have about 2.7 g BCAAs (cost ~$0.50)
  • 3 oz cooked chicken breast have about 4.87 g BCAAs (cost ~$0.50)
  • 16 oz milk has about 3.3 g BCAAs (cost ~$0.50)

If you need a protein powder (there’s a lot of reasons you may want one), use whey if you are not vegan. This is the gold standard and has a tremendous amount of research backing it up. If you are vegan, use a protein blend. And check out this article on vegan nutrition for climbers while you’re at it.

If you want a protein powder for traditional muscle recovery and building, don’t use collagen (nope, not even the “supercharged” stuff). If you want a supplement that MAY help with soft tissue health, you can TRY collagen if you have the budget for it. Be sure to take it with vitamin C before a workout at the correct dose for at least 12 weeks. Otherwise, just eat food!

Do yourself a favor and download the free NSF Certified for Sport app. Nope, I have no affiliation with them, I just think it’s a great app. Use it for any supplement you use and make sure it’s safe and clean. Especially if you’re a competitive athlete subject to doping tests, you NEVER want to use something that isn’t third-party tested for anti-doping standards.

I actually don’t have an affiliation with any supplement company, which is why I am able to write this post. You’re welcome!

Is there a less pricey alternative to collagen?

Good ol’ plain gelatin. Yes, it’s true. You can mix two small packets of unflavored gelatin with Gatorade or anything else and drink before training (gives you around ~15 g). Add in a vitamin C gummy and you’re good to go. You can also try homemade gummies (you would need to eat a 1/2 recipe to get the right dose of gelatin).

Two unflavored gelatin packets cost about $0.85.

Are there any vegan collagen products?

Er, maybe. Scientists are starting to create collagen from genetically modified yeast and bacteria. This obviously hasn’t been researched in an athletic population or compared against actual collagen in peer-reviewed studies looking at outcomes in soft tissue health.

There are a lot of vegan “collagen booster” products out there. These are mostly vitamins, minerals, and various plant “blends.” None of these are the real deal, and would likely not help in any way. The vitamins and minerals would only potentially be beneficial if you are already deficient in that nutrient. And if that’s the case, just supplement with that isolated nutrient, not a blend.

~This is general information only and not nutrition advice. Always consult your healthcare professional before undergoing any diet or lifestyle change.

Want to know more? Check out our courses on climbing nutrition and supplements!

And we have a comprehensive book on all things climbing nutrition. Seriously, the cost of the book is less than a jug of collagen.

References and further reading

How to pick a protein powder

Protein powders: whey, vegan, collagen, and BCAAs explained

We Do Science Podcast, where Keith Baar (the OG collagen researcher) lays out the current science

Healthline: Nice summary on collagen

Nutrition for the prevention and treatment of injuries in track and field athletes

Dietary supplements for health, adaptation, and recovery in athletes

24-Week study on the use of collagen hydrolysate as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain

Effects of different vitamin C-enriched collagen derivatives on collagen synthesis

Minimizing Injury and Maximizing Return to Play: Lessons from Engineered Ligaments

Vitamin C–enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis

Tips for Climbers with Diabetes

Fending off a blood sugar low while on the send

            Scenario: The favorite part of your day has finally arrived. You are at the gym standing below a route that crushed you last time instead of the other way around. But with renewed spirit you have regained strength, composure, and found more mental grit to make another attempt. As you stand  below the monstrosity visualizing the crux that defeated you, a familiar nervousness shimmers through your body like goosebumps; your fingers begin to tremble, but you ignore it because this is your time to conquer the project. With your eyes transfixed on the route your arms and neck start projecting the movements up the slab.

Crimp rock with the right hand, left foot into the crack, huge slope rocks for the next three movements with an explosive dynamic move to the jug rocks with both hands.  Then come the rocks the width of your fingernails that swallowed you whole the last attempt you made, but not today. You have rested as much as your busy lifestyle will allow, hydrated when you remember and refueled properly, except for skipping a few meals here and there. A quick energy bar and glass of milk in the late afternoon will have to suffice you told yourself. Dismissing the thought your body trails onward and upward reaching the final rock.

As the visualization ends your nervousness and shaky hands are accompanied by an increased heart rate and a slightly dizzy feeling. Your forehead and neck have drops of perspiration that were not there after warm-up. A wash of fatigue suddenly grips your legs, spine, neck, and arms. You feel “off” and know something is not right. Your climbing buddy notices a ghostly paleness to your face and suggests sitting down on the crash mats for a bit. 

The glazed-over look in your eyes and confused voice have made him realize something is amiss. In the back of your mind you remember the doctor mentioning something about frequently checking your blood glucose with a new machine, and watching for hypo’s (whatever that means…) and carrying around that expensive glucagon shot thing that you can never remember to grab on your way out the door.

            But thankfully it’s not a secret and your climbing partner knows you are a newly diagnosed diabetic. He has family members with the condition and has a well-trained eye for signs/symptoms of a hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic episode.  Knowing your typical lifestyle and lack of recent compliance to carbohydrate counting and blood glucose monitoring, he knows you need sugar . . . fast.  Reacting quickly, he rushes over to the vending machine and gets a packet of gummies and a regular soda.  He instructs you to drink half the soda and eat the gummies. Leaving you with another climber he goes in search of your backpack to find the blood glucose monitor you never use.  “It’s time to check your sugar levels, brah”, and after another pause says, “all the time.” In the fogginess of the moment, as your head hangs down, all you can muster is, “Dude, I never even made it on the wall.”

Defeat. Setback. Failure. If you have ever experienced a hypoglycemic episode during an exercise session these thoughts and feelings may seem familiar to you.

Ways to manage a low blood sugar episode

Know how to implement the Rule of 15 when hypoglycemic symptoms occur.

AS SOON AS SYMPTOMS APPEAR:

1: If possible, check blood glucose.

2: Eat/drink 15 grams of fast acting carbohydrate wait 15 minutes.

3: Recheck blood glucose, if below 70 mg/dl eat another 15 grams of fast acting   carbohydrate and wait 15 minutes.

4: Recheck blood glucose, if below 70 mg/dl, call 911.

What foods have 15 grams of fast-acting carbohydrate?

  • 3-4 glucose tablets
  • 4-6 oz juice
  • 4-6 oz regular soda
  • Fun size packet of Skittles
  • 4 Starburst
  • 1 packet fruit snacks or gummies
  • 1 small box of raisins

Make a diabetes emergency “Go Bag”

Take it everywhere you go. Include the following:

According to the American Diabetes Association, there are over 1.4 million new cases of diabetes each year (3). If you happen to be newly diagnosed it is imperative to seek counseling from a registered dietitian (RD) or certified diabetes educator (CDCES); treatment is individually based. Every diabetic has unique blood glucose patterns and a RD/CDE will be able to recommend the correct total daily dose of insulin, configure your insulin sensitivity factor, structure meal plans with adequate carbohydrate to fuel your exercise regimen, and educate you on the signs and symptoms of hypo/hyperglycemia.

Taking steps to properly care for yourself can be lifesaving and get you back to crushing projects in no time at all. Long gone will be the days when becoming weak in the knees from looking up at the crag is caused by low blood sugar, next time it will be because the challenge ahead is daunting and intimidating.

We all know how the story ends for the motivated climber, the rush of adrenaline kicks in and the call to, “climb on” rings tried and true.  However, this time the equipment to traverse is not just the rope, harness, chalk bag, and carabiner; it includes your “Go Bag” too.

Works Cited:

  1. Brooks, M. (2016). Blood glucose monitoring. [Powerpoint slides].Retrieved from https://mediacast.ttu.edu/Mediasite/Play/decf596f0b2748b8ae5f750848e1da791d
  2.  Brooks, M. (2016). Acute complications. [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from https://mediacast.ttu.edu/Mediasite/Play/ff4cdf0ec3724bd48ce0ba88de248ec11d
  3. Brooks, M. (2016). Disease process and macronutrient metabolism. [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from https://mediacast.ttu.edu/Mediasite/Play/71bee02b44e246c7a12bd98b34ab0e4b1d

Written by Lindsay Opie RD, LD

~This is general information only and not medical advice. Always consult with your healthcare professional before undergoing any diet, medication, or lifestyle change.

Hydration for climbers

Hydration is important for climbing performance

Climbing is as much about having a brain as it is about having a bicep. A fluid loss of >2% of your body weight can impair thinking hindering your brain’s ability to keep it together . We can all think back to a time where we lost our cool on a climb and coped by yelling at our belayer. (You mean you haven’t done that? Just me? Oh…)

How do you prevent dehydration when climbing so you can stay mentally sharp and safe?

At minimum, drink eight ounces (1 cup, ~240 milliliters) of water per hour while climbing. Extreme temperatures, your rate of sweat loss, elevation and the level of activity can all influence your total fluid needs. More extreme conditions mean you need more fluid.

Should I use electrolytes?

Hydration is more than just replenishing fluid loss. When we sweat our body loses sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium and chloride in addition to water. These are essential for proper fluid balance. Your body relies on electrolytes for important functions like blood pressure regulation and muscle contraction – this includes your heart.

Sports drinks typically have electrolytes already in them, hence the name electrolyte sports drink! A quick skim of the nutrition label can confirm that sodium, potassium and others are present. Coconut water is commonly treated as the rehydration fluid, but coconut water is too low in sodium to rehydrate you properly.

We lose more sodium in our sweat than any other electrolyte. The low sodium content of coconut water may not recoup your salt losses. Although a delicious beverage, it might not be an ideal recovery drink.

Plain ol’ water is great, but if fluid losses are excessive you need to add salt. Too much water without enough salt could have negative effects on the body ranging from dizziness to severe heart complications. If your clothes have white salt stains after they’ve dried, this could indicate you are losing a boat load of salt in your sweat .

Proper hydration is a skill. Hydration has to be a component of your day, not something you do after the fact when your lips are chapped and you would kill for a glass of water.

How much should I drink?

Before you head out, aim to drink 10-20 ounces an hour depending on your body weight. Add salt to your eggs, potatoes, salad, sandwich, etc to boost your sodium intake.

  • 100 pounds: 10 ounces every hour with sodium
  • 150 pounds: 15 ounces every hour with sodium
  • 200 pounds: 20 ounces every hour with sodium

During exercise your fluid intake is dependent on your sweat losses. It may be worth weighing yourself some time to see on average how much water loss you experience during an hour of activity. Remember extreme heat, altitude and other factors could exacerbate losses. A very general rule of thumb:

  • 8-20 ounces an hour
  • Consider marking your water bottle every 8 ounces so you have a quick visual of whether or not you have met your fluid mark

After exercise replenish sweat losses: 16-24 ounces for every pound lost.

  • Divide that amount out over time, so you aren’t chugging 32 ounces in a sitting. That sounds terrible. Eight to 20 ounces an hour is manageable, more than that might lead you to feel nauseated or full. Too much of a good thing, isn’t a good thing. When you can’t properly fuel your body because you are overflowing with fluids you could wind up  energy deficient.

The wrap up

Drink fluids my friends. Add salt to your food if you aren’t a fan of electrolyte sports drinks. Take a peek at a nutritional label of your favorite rehydration formula to ensure there are adequate levels of sodium present. We lose more sodium than anything else through sweating and sodium is an important molecule in our bodies! If you struggle to drink enough water, label a water bottle every 8 ounces and drink down at least one line per hour. Always have your water bottle within your line of sight. These strategies can help to make sure you drink enough to hydrate your body and mind.

~This article written by Kaila Dickey

Thomas T, Erdman K, Burke L. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. JAND. 2016; (116)3: 501-528. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.006

Learn more about hydration, fueling, and every other nutrition tip for climbers in this book, Nutrition for Climbers: Fuel for the Send.
Learn all about how to crush it and prevent dehydration in this on-demand course, Perfect Hydration for Athletes.
Learn about climbing nutrition and hydration in this on-demand course!

5 Tips for Nutrition and Hydration for High Altitude

Photo by Joshua Earle on Unsplash

It’s any climber’s worst nightmare: getting altitude sickness on the big trip you’ve been training for. Months of planning fall apart when you can’t get your body to adjust to the altitude!

How do you avoid altitude sickness? It’s not always a guarantee that everything will be ok, but with a few savvy hydration and nutrition hacks, you will set yourself up for the best trip possible.

Having a nutrition and hydration plan are key to any high altitude adventure. If you don’t have a strategy, you may find yourself fatigued, injured, or sick.

First, how is “high altitude” defined? It depends on whom you ask, but usually it is around the following:

  • Lower altitude: 1000-2000 meters (3280-6561 feet)
  • Moderate altitude: 2000-3000 meters (6561-9842 feet)
  • High altitude: 3000-5000 meters (9842-16404 feet)
  • Extreme altitude: >5000 meters (>16404 feet)

What happens to the body at high altitude?

A few things can happen! The air is thinner, meaning the oxygen molecules are spread farther apart than at sea level. This means you may feel a bit short of breath for every inhale. You’re simply getting less oxygen per breath that you’re used to–especially if you live at lower altitude and are going up to high altitude.

Since iron is involved with delivering oxygen to tissues in your body (lungs, heart, muscles), it’s important to have adequate iron stores.

Tip 1: Get your iron levels checked about 6 weeks before your trip

Make an appointment with your doctor to get a full iron panel. They’ll know what that means! It usually includes:

  • Serum iron
  • Total iron binding capacity
  • Ferritin stores
  • Transferrin saturation

If any deficiencies are detected, your doctor can recommend a correct dose and form of iron to take. It’s not a good idea to just take iron supplements on your own, especially if you don’t even know if you are deficient or anemic.

Food sources of iron that are good to include in your diet include:

  • Shellfish
  • Spinach
  • Lentils
  • Beef
  • Quinoa
  • Turkey
  • Tofu
  • Dark chocolate
  • Fortified breakfast cereal

Cooking in a cast iron skillet and eating foods with vitamin C help iron absorption as well (citrus foods and berries are common sources of vitamin C).

Tip 2: You need enough calories at high altitude

Alpinists and climbers that spend a lot of time at high altitude sometimes unintentionally lose weight. This can be due to a number of reasons, including the fact that your body is under stress and uses more calories, you may not have access to as much food as usual, and you are working harder than usual due to your outdoor activities. Appetite is sometimes decreased in higher altitudes, which also makes it difficult to get enough food.

To combat unintentional weight loss and make sure you’re well-fueled, try eating high calorie foods, (trail mix, nut butters, fluids with calories, protein bars, chocolate, ghee) adding fat (oils, butters, sauces, gravies) to foods, and packing more food than you think you will need.

Read How to Fuel a Long Hike

Eating the right foods (carbohydrates and calories) can help with altitude sickness!

Tip 3: You need enough fluids at high altitude

A good hydration strategy is key to successful high altitude trips! Your body needs more fluids because not only is it stressed, but the air is usually more arid (less moisture). With each breath, you lose some moisture from your body. Sweating, respiration (breathing), and urinary losses are all greater at high altitude.

There is about a 3% decrease in exercise capacity for every 300 meters above 1500 meters. That can add up to a big difference as you ascend!

Overall blood volume may decrease, which is a bad thing for your exercise performance. With each heart beat, your body is pumping less blood and less oxygen throughout your body. This can lead to fatigue and failed sends.

Always pack more water than you think you need, and/or bring along a water filter if your route has water nearby. Research shows that people are more prone to drink adequate amounts if the water is flavored. Enhance your fluids by using Gatorade or an electrolyte mix, such as Nuun or Skratch Labs.

Electrolytes are also crucial to hydrate properly. You lose sodium, calcium, magnesium, and potassium in sweat. If you’re only drinking water and not replacing electrolytes, you’re setting yourself up for dehydration or over-hydration. Symptoms include nausea, fatigue, and headaches.

Aim for at least 3-5 liters per day (13-21 8-oz cups). Don’t rely on thirst, as this can be unreliable in extreme conditions. Drink at regular intervals every 20-30 minutes to stay ahead of the hydration game. If you become dehydrated, it can take hours or even a full day to recover. Don’t let this happen to you! For an amazing and useful course, check out our Perfect Hydration for Athletes on-demand course!

Tip 4: Eat enough carbohydrates for high altitude adventures

Carbs are king when it comes to climbing! At high altitude, the hormones cortisol and adrenaline kick in. This is a stress hormone that demands more carbohydrates. In addition, the work you are doing to climb or hike is also using carbohydrates.

Fuel regularly by eating every 20-30 minutes. Eat a few bites of carbohydrate-rich foods, such as:

  • Sports gummies and chews
  • Fruit snacks
  • Dried fruit
  • Fruit leather
  • Crackers, chips, pretzels
  • Sports drinks with carbs
  • Gu or gels
  • Swedish Fish or Sour Patch Kids
  • Bagels

If your blood sugar drops, you may feel weak, shaky, dizzy, fatigued, or have a headache. Luckily, with some carbohydrates in your body, you can recover from low blood sugar within about 20-30 minutes. Take a rest and eat some food. Aim for about 30-60 grams of carbs per hour of activity.

You may also want to try beet juice, powder, or shots. There is some evidence that suggests the nitrate in beets (which converts to nitric oxide in your body) may help at high altitudes. Nitric oxide opens up blood vessels to allow for more blood flow and oxygenation.

Tip 5: Always bring more food and water than you think you will need!

You never know when your trip will take longer than planned, conditions on the mountain may change, or someone around you may need some food or fluids. Be prepared for any situation.

Remember, carbs and fluids are your friend! With the right fueling and hydration plan, you’ll have a successful trip and feel amazing and energized while climbing!

~This is general information only and not medical advice. Always consult with your healthcare professional before undergoing any diet or lifestyle change.

Like this article? Be sure to Pin it! And check out our comprehensive guide, Nutrition for Climbers: Fuel for the Send.

References/further reading

Nutrition recommendations for high altitude training

Kechikan, D. (2011). Optimizing nutrition for performance at altitude. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, 11, 12-17.

Ladd E, Shea KM, Bagley P, Auerbach PS, Pirrotta E, Wang E, Lipman GS. (2016). Hydration status as a predictor of high-altitude mountaineering performance. Cureus, 8(12): e918.

Ross M, Martin DT. (2015) Altitude, cold and heat. In Burke L and Deakin V (eds) Clinical Sports Nutrition (5th). Sydney, Australia, McGraw Hill, pp767-791